In recent times, walking has been enlisted as one of the key weapons in the war on inactivity. Planners and policymakers have taken note of evidence highlighting the benefits of walking for health and wellbeing. Meanwhile, local and national governments have taken up the challenge of embedding walking into policy, strategy and guidance. There are now national walking strategies for England, Wales and Scotland, and from Belfast to Bristol local councils have published their own plans to get more people walking.
Travel trends and their costs
During the twentieth century, there was a shift from work involving physical labour to jobs of a more sedentary nature. In addition, the growth of suburbs and rising car ownership has contributed to a decline in people travelling on foot. At the same time, the attractions of television and home computers mean fewer people are spending their leisure time playing sports or taking part in outdoor activities.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has put the consequences of these trends into stark perspective:
“Sedentary lifestyles increase all causes of mortality, double the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity, and increase the risks of colon cancer, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, lipid disorders, depression and anxiety.”
- Worldwide, around two million deaths a year are attributed to physical inactivity.
- In the UK, physical activity contributes to one in six deaths, and costs £7.4 billion a year to business and wider society. It is the fourth largest cause of disease and disability in the UK.
- In Scotland, inactivity contributes to over 2,500 deaths each year, costing the NHS £94.1m annually.
The benefits of walking
Efforts encouraging people to become more active have had mixed results, and there is now a recognition that turning the tide of physical activity may take decades to achieve. But there’s also a growing understanding that physical activity that can be built in to everyday life can be as effective as supervised exercise programmes. And, as we reported last week, the health benefits of walking can be demonstrated in unexpected ways, such as the emergence of the Pokémon Go game as an incentive to exercise.
A recent report from the Arup design and engineering firm highlights that walking is good for cities as well as for people. It details more than 50 ways in which the world can benefit from walkable cities, including:
- Social benefits – health and wellbeing, safety, placemaking, social cohesion and equality.
- Economic benefits – city attractiveness, urban regeneration, cost savings.
- Environmental benefits – addressing air and noise pollution, improving liveability and transport efficiency.
- Political benefits – leadership, urban governance, sustainable development and planning opportunities.
Making walkable places
Another key theme of the Arup report was the importance of planning for pedestrians:
“If we want cities to be more walkable, the way we design cities has to change. Walkable places are more compact, dense with mixed uses. Streets have to be well connected with more shade from sun and rain, green spaces, trees and public spaces. And, we must pay more attention to the quality of public spaces, not just providing quantity of walkable space.” Joanna Rowelle, Director at Arup
The report lists 40 actions that city leaders can consider to inform walking policy, strategy and design. Among the ideas:
- Temporarily removing cars from a city can transform roads into public spaces, raise awareness around car dependency, reduce air pollution, and reveal the potential opportunities created by having more – and safer – spaces for people.
- Financial incentives and disincentives, including subsidies and taxes like congestion charges, can be used to encourage behaviour change.
- Use of shared spaces to create a pedestrian-oriented environment where people are aware of fellow road users.
- Unused infrastructure – such as New York City’s High Line – offers major opportunities for facilitating safe and attractive pedestrian routes and activity spaces.
- Urban regeneration creates the opportunity to redevelop small pieces of land into pocket parks or public spaces with a green character.
- Rivers and waterways can be transformed from barriers into walking and cycling routes by creating green and accommodating waterfronts.
Best foot forward?
Many of the suggestions in the Arup report are not hard to implement, and needn’t be costly. But even when schemes have been enacted, they may face opposition.
Each weekend, for the past seven years, a busy thoroughfare in Bucharest has been cleared to create Via Sport – a safe space for leisure and sport. This summer, the city’s new mayor claimed Via Sport has been causing traffic problems. The scheme has now been closed for the foreseeable future.
Old instincts die hard. Those rethinking patterns and processes of urban design to stimulate walking (and cycling) will face a few bumps in the road. But the potential rewards will be great. As David Sim of Gehl Architects observes:
“The key strategy is about getting people to actually spend time out on the street. They become a part of the space, familiar with their neighbours, and are in tune with city life.”
Our previous blog posts on urban planning for pedestrians and cyclists include:
- Planning healthy cities: integration is key
- Travel planning for greener, cleaner journeys
- Urban cycling innovations: smart cities get on their bikes
- A vélorution in the making: how Montreal is reshaping its streets to become a cycle-friendly city