The experts are in agreement: having a diverse workforce can drive innovation, improve performance and attract top talent. As such, diversity and inclusion (D&I) is a ‘hot topic’, with many top organisations identifying it as a key element of their corporate strategy.
But what does effective D&I look like in practice? In this blog, we will look at how to implement effective D&I initiatives in the workplace.
Progress still needed
While organisational diversity has improved in recent years, there is still a long way to go.
Action has been most visible in regards to gender. However, although female employment rates have increased, male and female experiences of progression within the workplace are still vastly different. For example, in 2018, FTSE 100 CEOs were still more likely to be called Dave or Steve than to be female.
Progress has been less tangible in regards to race and ethnicity. A recent study by the Chartered Management Institute (CMI) found that while 75% of FTSE 100 companies set progression targets for gender, only 21% did the same for BAME. Indeed, only 6% of top management jobs are held by Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) leaders, whereas BAME groups make up 12% of the working population.
There is a similar lack of representation among disabled and LGBT employees. This only increases when considering intersectionality – that is, employees who identify with more than one protected status.
Diversity and inclusion are separate concepts
Many organisational diversity initiatives have proved unsuccessful. Where have they gone wrong?
Firstly, being a truly inclusive organisation is about more than just hiring a diverse workforce. Diversity alone does not guarantee that every employee will have the same experience within the organisation.
A first step towards implementing an effective D&I strategy is to understand that diversity and inclusion are related, but distinct, concepts.
As the recent CIPD report on ‘Building inclusive workplaces’ explains:
- Diversity refers to the demographic differences of a group. It usually references protected characteristics in UK law: age, disability, gender, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation.
- Inclusion, on the other hand, is often defined as the extent to which everyone at work, regardless of their background, identity or circumstance, feels valued, accepted and supported to succeed at work.
Thus, effective organisational D&I is more than just demographics. Put simply ‘Diversity is the mix. Inclusion is making the mix work’.
Copy and paste mistakes
Another key mistake that many organisations make is ‘copying and pasting’ initiatives from another organisation into their own situation.
Just because a D&I initiative has been successful elsewhere does not mean that it will be effective in a different organisational context. It is essential that D&I initiatives are tailored to suit individual organisational contexts. Much will depend on the unique structural and individual barriers to inclusion that are faced in an organisation.
Addressing the barriers
Thus, it is crucial that organisations identify and tackle these specific barriers to inclusion.
Structural barriers may include a lack of flexible working opportunities, or a lack of BAME representation on recruitment selection panels or within senior management and HR.
Individual barriers may include prejudice and bias (both conscious and unconscious). For example, the TUC Racism at Work survey found that 65% of BAME workers have suffered harassment at work within the last five years, while 49% had been treated unfairly. Similarly, an NIESR study found that 23% of LGBT employees had experienced a negative or mixed reaction from others in the workplace due to being LGBT or being thought to be LGBT.
Tackling prejudice and bias
Addressing employees’ unconscious bias is one way to help tackle this. Unconscious bias training involves teaching people about the psychological processes behind prejudice and techniques that can be used to reduce it. Research has found that unconscious bias training can be effective in increasing people’s awareness and knowledge of diversity issues.
However, evidence of its impact on attitudes and behaviours is less conclusive, so it is not a panacea.
Making the mix work
So what else can organisations do to help foster inclusion?
Research has found that there are several key aspects that contribute to individual feelings of inclusion. In particular, individuals must feel valued for their uniqueness, and they must feel able to be their authentic selves at work, regardless of any differences between them and other team members. This, in turn, leads to a sense of belonging, without the need to conform to ‘group norms’.
Individual feelings of inclusion are influenced both by the behaviours of others at work, as well as informal and formal organisational practices.
Some good practice examples of organisational inclusion include:
- Fair policies and practices
- Ensuring the availability of specific practices, such as flexible working, that can support inclusion
- Involving employees in decision making processes and networks
- Actively taking feedback on board
- Ensuring that leaders are role models for inclusion
- Genuinely valuing individual difference, not just hiring for representation
Other practices that may help promote inclusive working environments include mentorship, sponsorship and the creation of inclusive employee networks.
Learning from good practice
The good news is that an increasing number of organisations are working towards becoming truly diverse and inclusive. Awards and certifications such as Business in the Community’s Race Equality Award, EDGE certification for gender equality, and Stonewall’s Workplace Equality Index for LGBT inclusion, all highlight the positive work that is being done.
For example, Pinsent Masons – currently the number 1 employer in the Workplace Equality Index – have worked to remove barriers to employment for trans individuals, provided support for LGBT women to overcome the ‘double glazed glass ceiling’ and facilitated the creation of an LGBT and allies employee network.
Inclusion leads to better, fairer workplaces
Successful D&I cannot be measured by demographics – it is not enough to just have the right numbers on paper. Every employee must feel valued as an individual and have equal access to opportunities. In order to achieve this, organisations must look at their own contexts and develop initiatives that tackle the individual and structural barriers to inclusion that have been identified. Listening to feedback from employees, and genuinely valuing and acting upon their input, is essential.
Becoming more inclusive is not only a moral obligation, it also has profound business implications – a recent study found that the potential benefit to the UK economy from full representation of BAME individuals across the labour market through improved participation and progression is estimated to be £24 billion per annum. Thus, inclusive organisations are not only better and fairer places to work, but can also achieve better performance and innovation.
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