Earlier this year, the NFER published its first annual report on the state of the teacher workforce.
Among its key findings were that “the secondary school system is facing a substantial teacher supply challenge over the next decade, which requires urgent action.”
Unfortunately, this ‘teacher supply challenge’ – also referred to as the ‘teacher recruitment crisis’ – is not a new development. Back in 2017, the House of Commons Education Select Committee published a report on the recruitment and retention of teachers in England which concluded that the government was failing to take “adequate” action to tackle what it describes as “significant” teacher shortages in England.
In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of the extent of teacher shortages, as well as outlining the key ways in which the government’s teacher recruitment and retention strategy seeks to address them.
Teacher numbers have fallen since 2010
The Department for Education (DfE) forecasts that secondary schools will need 15,000 more teachers between 2018 and 2025 to meet a 15% increase in pupil numbers.
However, despite this, teacher numbers have been falling.
This is due in part to increasing numbers of both primary and secondary teachers leaving the state sector – particularly those in the early stages of their career. Indeed, the retention rates of early-career teachers (between 2-5 years into their careers) fell significantly between 2012 and 2018.
In addition, targets for the required number of secondary teacher trainees have been missed for six years in a row – resulting in insufficient numbers of new teachers entering the secondary sector.
These factors have led to an overall decline in the number of secondary teachers, and a doubling of secondary post vacancies, since 2010.
The secondary teacher shortage has been particularly acute in certain subjects, such as maths, science and languages. For example, recruitment to teacher training in physics in 2018/19 was more than 50% below the numbers required to maintain supply.
In addition to this, earlier this year, a poll by the National Education Union found that nearly 1 in 5 (18%) teachers expect to leave the classroom in less than two years, and nearly two-fifths want to quit in the next five years.
Making teaching ‘attractive, sustainable and rewarding’
The stats paint a bleak picture. The government’s response has been to publish their first ‘Teacher recruitment and retention strategy’.
This strategy aims to make sure that careers in teaching are “attractive, sustainable and rewarding” by addressing some of the key issues within the profession that have hindered both recruitment and retention.
The strategy focuses on four key priorities:
- Creating more supportive school cultures and a reduced workload
- Transforming support for early career teachers
- Expanding flexible working and career progression opportunities
- Simplifying the process of becoming a teacher and encouraging more people to try it out
Central to the new strategy is the launch of the ‘Early Career Framework’ – a funded two-year support package for all new teachers. The Early Career Framework aims to address the high numbers of new teachers leaving the profession by providing them with additional support, including mentoring, training programmes, free curriculum and training materials, and a reduced timetable to enable them to focus on their training.
There have also been a range of additional initiatives put in place to encourage the recruitment and retention of teachers.
As well as plans to increase salaries, teacher trainees can now access bursaries – with the level of bursary granted varying depending on the subject and the degree class of the teacher trainee applicant. For example, trainees with a first class degree in physics are eligible for £28,000.
There has also been a pilot of ‘early career payments’ where trainees in mathematics receive £5,000 each in their third and fifth year of teaching. This payment will be increased to £7,500 for teachers in the most challenging schools in specific areas.
Retraining opportunities for later life career changers
As well as financial incentives for trainee teachers, the government has also pledged £10 million to encourage business leaders, boardroom executives and high-flying graduates to take up teaching.
The charity Now Teach is one of three organisations that will benefit from this funding.
Now Teach encourages people who already have successful careers to retrain as maths, science and modern foreign languages teachers. It was set up in 2016 by journalist Lucy Kellaway, who – after over 30 years at the Financial Times – has since qualified as a teacher herself. Through the Now Teach programme, experienced professionals can achieve Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) either through a school or university-based route. It has so far encouraged over 120 professionals to retrain as teachers – including a former Nasa scientist, an investment banker and a corporate lawyer.
As well as working to recruit new trainees, Now Teach also aims to support their retention – noting that older trainees are generally more likely to drop out of teacher than their younger counterparts. Now Teach also works towards improving part-time and flexible working options within schools.
Unmet demand for flexible working
Indeed, support for flexible working is another key aspect of the government’s teacher recruitment and retention strategy.
At present, far fewer teachers work flexibly than the workforce as a whole – only 17% of secondary school teachers work part-time, compared with 27% of workers nationally. The gap is even more pronounced when you consider that teaching is a female-dominated profession – 42% of women nationally work part-time.
A recent NFER research paper found that there is unmet demand for part-time working, particularly in secondary schools. They found that, as well as helping to improve teacher recruitment and retention, increased levels of part-time work within schools may also help to improve staff wellbeing.
The government has made a number of commitments to promote flexible working within schools, including plans to update its guidance on flexible working and to promote flexible working opportunities via its new Teacher Vacancy Service.
“It’s not the answer, but it’s an answer.”
While improving flexible working opportunities and encouraging later life career changes may not in themselves be sufficient to address the wider teacher supply crisis, they are important as part of the government’s wider drive to encourage more people into the teaching profession. As Lucy Kellaway observes: “It’s not the answer, but it’s an answer.”
Addressing the poor status and perception of the teaching profession, by improving key factors such as salary, workload and work-life balance, is undoubtedly key to encouraging more people to enter and remain in the profession.
It will be interesting to see whether and how the various initiatives set out within the government’s Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategy impact upon recruitment and retention levels over the next few years.
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