SURF conference 2017 – What Scotland has learned from 25 years of regeneration

Mural of a taxi being elevated by ballons, Glasgow

Fantastical floating taxi mural, part of Glasgow’s City Centre Mural Trail

By Steven McGinty

If regeneration has been so successful, why are there still so many pilots?

This was just one of the many thought-provoking points raised at the Scottish Urban Regeneration Forum’s (SURF) 25th Anniversary Conference, where the very activity of regeneration was put under the microscope.

In a packed room of delegates, the day opened with two opposing views.

  • The first argued that although regeneration had undoubtedly had its failures, there had been a number of important successes, which had resulted in better places and opportunities for both communities and individuals.
  • The second – and more pessimistic perspective – was that regeneration policy had entirely failed, and that the areas experiencing poverty and deprivation had barely changed over the past 25 years (particularly in Glasgow, where much of the regeneration activity has been focused).

This provided a useful lens through which to view regeneration, as we moved onto a day of workshops and debates on 25 years of regeneration policy, starting from New Life for Urban Scotland all the way up to City Region Deals.

Below I’ve outlined some of the most interesting points to come from these sessions.

Universal income

There was broad agreement that regeneration was about more than building homes, and that one of its core purposes was to tackle inequality.

Universal Basic Income is a policy in which everyone in society is given a sum of money, without any conditions. This policy – likely to be popular – was proposed by a delegate, highlighting its potential for addressing increasing levels of income inequality. A pilot study is already underway in Finland, with participants reporting lower stress levels and greater incentive to work. The Scottish Government has also recently committed to funding local experiments in Fife, Glasgow and North Ayrshire Councils.

Communities need assets

In many of the debates, it was felt that community ownership of buildings and land was key to ensuring a fairer distribution of society’s wealth. Other benefits of community ownership include protecting key local services/facilities (which may have otherwise been lost) and offering better stewardship, as the community have a greater understanding of local needs.

Research has also shown that local communities – who have replaced private landlords – have outperformed the landlords they have replaced. In the past two decades, the value of their land has increased by almost 250%.

Distinctiveness of place

Delegates highlighted that local areas often need local solutions.  For instance, a representative from the Bute Island Alliance noted that addressing their declining population was key to their regeneration goals.

Community consultation

There was a strong feeling that communities had to be consulted. A representative from a local charity explained that “if you are working for a community, then it must include the community”. Others, suggested that some communities would not have the capacity to make decisions on regeneration projects. Yet, this was quickly deemed patronising, with many noting the series of failures by public officials.

Charrettes were seen as an ideal tool for consulting with communities. The Scottish Government define a charrette as:

an interactive design process, in which the public and stakeholders work directly with a specialised design team to generate a community vision, masterplan and action plan.”

The representative from the Bute Island Alliance highlighted that this process had been very helpful in the development of their regeneration plans.

Bringing communities together

It was widely acknowledged that communities are becoming more diverse, and that it’s important to include all members of society. One delegate recounted her experience of Social Inclusion Partnerships (SIPs) – an initiative which aimed to reduce social exclusion – explaining that this model was very successful at engaging with black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. We’ve also seen the Scottish Government recognise the need to encourage young people to get involved in local planning decisions.

Building an inclusive economy

Regeneration has always found it difficult to respond to wider political, economic, social and technological factors. Over decades, deindustrialisation and the change to a more knowledge-based economy has caused significant challenges for communities. For regeneration policy to be successful, it was suggested that people would need to be equipped with the skills to take part in future industries; otherwise we may see inequalities widen. Cities such as Dublin have seen rents increased dramatically due to the inward migration of highly-skilled technology workers, putting pressure on household budgets and showing the challenge for regeneration.

Final thoughts

In the past 25 years there has been an important shift in regeneration, moving from house building programmes to a more holistic approach, which includes policy areas such as health, employment, and the environment. However, the most recent Scottish Government regeneration strategy was published in 2011. It might therefore be time to revisit this strategy and provide a new vision for regeneration, taking recent learning and the changing environment into account. Maybe then, in the next 25 years, there will be no doubt over the successes of regeneration.


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Local poverty, national wealth: reflections from the annual SURF conference

The annual SURF conference took place in Edinburgh on the 1st September 2016. The theme for this year’s conference was Local poverty, national wealth: resourcing regeneration. Delegates came from a range of organisations across Scotland, including local authorities, the Scottish Federation of Housing Associations, COSLA, Creative Scotland, Skills Development Scotland and Transport Scotland. Speakers on the day included director of the Common Weal, Robin McAlpine, Minister for Local Government and Housing, Kevin Stewart MSP, Fiona Duncan from Lloyds TSB Foundation Scotland and Sandra Marshall coordinator and community activist from Leith Hub.

img_2787

Image by Rebecca Jackson

Building resilient and equal communities through regeneration

The conference focused on connecting policy, practice and people within communities to promote effective regeneration of spaces to reduce inequality. One of the recurring themes of discussion throughout the day was the localisation of power and services, allowing local communities the ability to plan and decide the best way to regenerate their local area. Other general themes discussed during the day included finance, infrastructure to facilitate regeneration at a local level, and how to create a network of support and integrate professional knowledge to support community regeneration plans. Revisiting a theme from last year’s conference, cooperation with communities rather than imposition of regeneration, formed the backbone of discussion for the day.

Image by Rebecca Jackson

Image by Rebecca Jackson

Economic planning is key to reducing inequality and promoting regeneration

The first session of the day focussed on the policy and economic context around regeneration and reducing inequality. It was suggested in the opening remarks that there needs to be effective development and investment where people live- that poverty and inequality lead to degeneration, and that both must be tackled in order to facilitate effective regeneration of an area. In a way the two are not mutually exclusive: regeneration can help to alleviate poverty and inequality, but in order for regeneration to be as effective as possible, poverty and inequality should be eradicated as far as possible.

As well as this abstract macroeconomic debate delegates and panellists discussed locality based funding, including cooperatives. Panellists suggested that in Scotland the problem is not a lack of money, but a lack of effective distribution of resources. They also discussed how to reduce the gap between the lived experience of communities and what politicians think lived experience is. These insights were put into poignant context by panellist Sandra Marshall, who discussed her own personal struggles, and those of others she has helped in her community of Muirhouse in Edinburgh.

Tackling inequality is high on the agenda of the current Scottish Government, something which was emphasised during the panel session by Kevin Stewart MSP. Working at a community level and having the power to do so was also something which was highlighted as being vital to helping communities affect change through regeneration. Kevin Stewart highlighted the proposed decentralisation bill currently being discussed within the Scottish Parliament, which aims to give greater power to local communities to effect their own change.

pink pig and coins

Resourcing regeneration: the view from funders

There was a general consensus that funding is one of the key enablers, but also one of the biggest barriers to those who want to carry out community regeneration. The ease of access to funders and the ability to identify and engage with them was seen as a big barrier. Longevity of funding was also raised, with most funders donating grants for 3-5 years, despite acknowledging that many projects take longer to come to fruition. The second session of the day invited funders from major Scottish regeneration funding bodies: the Big Lottery Fund, Heritage Lottery Fund, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, Resilient Scotland, and the Scottish Government to present themselves and their funding options to delegates. Panellists were able to highlight their major funding schemes, how to apply and allow people the opportunity to chat directly with funders. The panellists also took part in a “funding cafe” exhibition which saw representatives from 20 of the major funding bodies in Scotland host stalls and interact with delegates.

Making connections and sharing learning

During the afternoon session delegates were able to hear about the lessons from SURF’s Alliance for Action collaboration projects. The projects in Govan, Kirkcaldy, Rothesay and Dunoon highlight the work done by SURF and their partners in using regeneration to promote community cohesion and reduce inequality. Discussions focussed on the projects themselves, how they were implemented, the challenges, barriers and differences in each of the projects, particularly in relation to scale, and the impacts and outcomes they produced. They also discussed how the models used in each of the projects are sustainable and transferable, and considered the role of SURF as the intermediary body through which policy and practice can be merged to the benefit of communities.

Community concept word cloud background

Community concept word cloud background

A bold new vision for regeneration in Scotland

The final session of the day put forward some suggestions for the future of regeneration, in particular using regeneration as a tool to reduce inequality within Scotland’s communities. Panellists discussed alternative and innovative funding methods, including co-operative and community ownership models, the decentralisation of power to help improve community decision making and the importance of addressing systematic and structural themes which underpin inequality within our communities and hinders the process of regeneration.

The conference was a day filled with interesting and unique insights into the regeneration agenda and the impact it can have on reducing inequality within communities. It also provided a platform for discussion about the future potential for regeneration projects within communities. Speakers and delegates came from a variety of policy, practice and community backgrounds, which resulted in a wide ranging and thorough discussion about many different aspects of the regeneration agenda within Scotland.


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SURF Awards winners: success stories in Scottish regeneration

Promotional materials from the SURF Awards 2015

Image by Steven McGinty

By Steven McGinty

I recently attended a workshop highlighting three winning projects from the 2015 SURF Awards, an annual ceremony which recognises best practice and innovation in community regeneration in Scotland.

Kilmarnock

The day began with a presentation from the winners of ‘Scotland’s Most Improved Large Town’, Kilmarnock. From the outset, Karl Doroszenko the Development Planning & Regeneration Manager at East Ayrshire Council acknowledged that Kilmarnock had gone through some hard times, remarking that most people would associate the town with words such as ‘failing’, ‘deprived’, and ‘unemployment blackspot’.

However, for Karl, the town has a lot to be confident about. In 2005, East Ayrshire Council introduced a strategy to revitalise Kilmarnock town centre. A key part of this strategy was introducing the ‘Town Centre First Principle’, an approach which encouraged the council to locate their offices to the town centre. It also included a commitment to valuing local heritage, and over £21 million was invested in heritage buildings, including the former Opera House, which is now a modern office building for local council staff.

A Community Worker in East Ayrshire Council also provided his views on community engagement. In his words, ‘you either do it or you don’t’, highlighted the need to genuinely listen to stakeholders (businesses, voluntary organisations, and the local community) and to deliver for people. He also noted the importance of trying new ideas, and accepting that not all of these will be a success.

Barrhead

Barrhead, winner of ‘Scotland’s Most Improved Small/Medium Town’, had some notable similarities to Kilmarnock. For instance, Barrhead also incorporated a Town Centre First approach into its regeneration strategy – although implementation was more complicated due to the town’s fragmented centre.

But Barrhead also had its own unique set of challenges. In particular, political buy-in was difficult to achieve at times, with regeneration programmes often competing with other priorities such as education. Unfortunately, Barrhead also suffered from being a disadvantaged area within an affluent council (East Renfrewshire), sitting alongside areas such as Clarkston, Newtown Mearns and Giffnock. This limited the town’s impact when applying for external sources of funding.

Despite these challenges, Barrhead has had a number of successes, including:

  • A new £14 million health centre
  • The investment of £1.4 million in improving the public realm
  • The opening of a new £22 million town square and town square superstore
  • A new community facility, the Barrhead Foundry, which includes a sports centre, library, conference centre, and employability and business hub

Laurieston’s ‘Open Spaces’

The Open Spaces project, run by arts organisation WAVEparticle in partnership with New Gorbals Housing Association, was the winner of SURF’s ‘Creative Regeneration’ award. The artist-led initiative complements a major housing development in the Gorbals area of Glasgow, making a diverse set of buildings and open spaces – such as the Caledonia Road Church – temporarily available for creative uses.

The initiative is providing existing and new residents with opportunities to engage with a variety of creative projects. This has resulted in a number of benefits for the community, including:

  • attractive heritage-based cultural facilities and public artworks
  • improved community cohesion
  • enhanced urban connectivity
  • a greater feeling of ‘pride of place’

Debate

The presentations provided inspiration for a lively debate between delegates.

Unsurprisingly, many individuals highlighted the challenges of declining public funds for regeneration programmes. There was also criticism of the short term nature of funding (two or three year periods), particularly as there was general agreement that it takes decades to see the impact of regeneration projects.

However, some of the participants suggested that this might provide an opportunity as local government has realised that they cannot do everything. Delegates noted that this could result in a greater role for the third sector, as well as increased community consultation.

Interestingly, a senior member of Glasgow City Council, gave what he called ‘a plea for understanding’, explaining that although the council would have less funding available, it did not mean they were any less committed to improving the lives of residents. He highlighted that organisations should view the council as a ‘friendly partner’ and that partnership was key to achieving change.

Delegates also discussed the conflict between overarching national strategies and locally led approaches to regeneration. It was suggested we need to ‘think nationally’ as there are too many short term projects there are never embedded into practice or strategy. Others argued that regeneration needs to focus on local people, and that not enough is being done to support a community led approach.

One delegate also used the rather inspirational phrase ‘transfer of human energy’. This refers to the positive impact that community members can have on each other if provided with the right opportunities, such as through creative projects.

Final thoughts

The workshop was well attended and brought together a broad range of individuals, from town planners to local artists. However, what they all had in common was a desire to improve the health and well-being of residents in Scotland’s most disadvantaged communities.


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Looking to the future: SURF Conference 2014

Bridge across river Clyde

by Laura Dobie

The SURF 2014 Conference, which took place yesterday, was a lively event which explored regeneration in Scotland from a range of perspectives, including the economy, social justice, and land ownership.

Following on from last year’s SURF Regeneration and the Referendum debate, and with the referendum fast approaching in September, this year’s conference discussed regeneration within the context of the debate for Scottish independence, considering the implications of potential constitutional change. SURF is also working on a regeneration manifesto for the next general election, and Chair Brian MacDonald and Chief Executive Andy Milne invited contributions from delegates to shape this manifesto.

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