What is unconscious bias?
Although levels of explicit prejudice are falling, discrimination continues to be a problem for many sections of society. One reason for this may be ‘unconscious bias’.
Unconscious bias is “a bias that we are unaware of, and which happens outside of our control. It is a bias that happens automatically and is triggered by our brain making quick judgments and assessments of people and situations, influenced by our background, cultural environment and personal experiences.”
Everyone has some degree of unconscious bias. Unconscious thoughts are often based on stereotypes and prejudices that we do not realise that we have.
From a survival point of view, these brain ‘shortcuts’ are a positive and necessary function – they help us to make snap decisions in dangerous situations, for example. However, in everyday life, they can negatively effect rational decision-making.
Types of unconscious bias
Unconscious bias has different forms. One common form is Affinity bias – the subconscious preference for people with similar characteristics to ourselves (sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, educational background etc.). In 2015, the CIPD reported that recruiters were often affected by affinity bias, resulting in the tendency to hire ‘mini-mes’.
The Halo effect involves the tendency for an impression created in one area to influence opinion in another area. For example, a disproportionate number of corporate CEOs are over six foot tall, suggesting that there is a perception that taller people make better leaders, or are more successful. Similar patterns have been observed in the military and even for Presidents of the United States.
The Horns effect is the opposite of the ‘Halo effect’ – where one characteristic clouds our opinions of other attributes. For example, the perception that women are ‘less capable’ in certain occupations. A review found that female psychologists and women in STEMM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine) departments were just as likely to discriminate against female candidates as their male counterparts.
The same qualities can also be perceived very differently in different people – for example, assertiveness in a man may be perceived more positively (‘strong leader’) than in a woman (‘bossy’).
Impact of unconscious bias
Unconscious bias not only influences our body language and the way we interact with people, it can also negatively influence a number of important decisions in the workplace, including:
- Staff appraisals
- Workload allocations
As well as being unfair, decisions based on unconscious biases are unlikely to be optimal and can result in missed opportunities. Where unconscious bias also effects a protected characteristic, it can also be discriminatory.
How to mitigate unconscious bias
So, now you know what unconscious bias is, what can you do about it?
The good news is that it is possible to mitigate the effects of unconscious bias. The first step is to become more aware of the potential of unconscious bias to influence your own decision-making. Large organisations such as Google and the NHS are already providing unconscious bias training to their staff.
You can take this awareness further by taking an Implicit Association Test, such as that provided by Harvard University. This will help to identify and understand your own personal biases.
Other ways to help reduce the influence of unconscious bias include:
- Taking time to make decisions
- Ensuring decisions are justified by evidence and the reasons for decisions are recorded
- Working with a wider range of people and get to know them as individuals, such as different teams or colleagues based in a different location
- Focusing on positive behaviours and not negative stereotypes
At the corporate level, ways that organisations can help to tackle unconscious bias include:
- Implement policies and procedures which limit the influence of individual characteristics and preferences, including objective indicators, assessment and evaluation criteria and the use of structured interviews
- Ensure that selection panels are diverse, containing both male and female selectors and a range other characteristics where possible (ethnicity, age, background etc.)
- Promote counter-stereotypical images of underrepresented groups
- Provide unconscious bias training workshops
Tackling unconscious bias is not just a moral obligation; it is essential if organisations are to be truly inclusive. By making best use of the available talent, it can also help to make organisations be more efficient and competitive.
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