The last few years have seen a phenomenal growth in demand for electric vehicles in the UK. Nearly 50,000 electric and plug in hybrid vehicles were registered between July and September 2017 – a considerable achievement, when only 5 years ago it was less than 1,000.
Overall, there are now around 120,000 battery-powered cars on Britain’s roads, and this is expected to grow to 10m by 2035. From the modest Nissan Leaf, to the futuristic Tesla, the choice of electric vehicles is expanding, and various car manufacturers have announced ambitious plans to develop even more electric vehicles to suit a range of tastes and budgets.
The benefits of moving to electric are clear – as well as lower emissions, they are also cheaper to run – costing less than half as much than petrol-powered equivalents.
Out with the old
This means that a future where electric cars are the norm is now on the near horizon. Indeed, the UK recently committed to banning the sale of new petrol and diesel cars, including hybrid vehicles, by 2040. The Scottish government have set an even more ambitious target – pledging that by 2032 all new vehicles sold in Scotland will be electric. Norway, India and France have also set similar goals.
At the local level, Oxford is set to become the first city centre to ban all non-electric vehicles – with certain streets becoming electric-only by 2020, and the world’s first ultra-low emissions zone (ULEZ) will come into operation in London next year.
Delivery of EV infrastructure through the planning system
As desirable as a low emission, electric-only city may be, the use of electric vehicles poses a number of challenges for town planning and urban design.
Ensuring that there is sufficient infrastructure in place to meet the increased demand for electric vehicle recharging will be a key issue. While there has been a significant growth in the number and geographic spread of EV connectors across the UK since 2011, many more will be required if predicted demand is to be met.
While motorway services and petrol stations will soon be required by law to install charge points for electric cars, simply replacing existing fuel pumps with EV chargers will not provide sufficient capacity, as at present, charging an electric car can take anywhere between 30 minutes to a couple of hours. Additional charging stations will have to be incorporated into parking spots – either on the road, at home or in car parks.
The planning system is already taking some practical action to address this. Both planning policy and development management provide important delivery mechanisms.
At the national level, in England, the National Planning Policy Framework states that
“developments should be located and designed where practical to… incorporate facilities for charging plug-in and other ultra-low emission vehicles”.
In Scotland, high level planning policy also recognises the importance of considering EV charging infrastructure in new developments, with supportive text included in both the Third National Planning Framework and the Scottish Planning Policy 2014. In addition, permitted development rights for off-road charge points came into force in 2014.
At the regional level, some policies require planning authorities to incorporate facilities for charging electric vehicles. For example, The London Plan states:
“developments in all parts of London must… ensure that 1 in 5 spaces provide an electrical charging point to encourage the uptake of electric vehicles”.
Several local authorities also use local plan policies to require electric vehicle provision, and others use their development control powers to require developers to provide electric vehicle charging points.
Some authorities have also taken opportunities to broker EV via non-planning routes, for example, the provision of public recharging point provision through grants. One such example – the On-Street Residential Chargepoint Scheme – was set up in 2016, and provides up to 75% of the cost of procuring and installing chargepoints.
While progress is being made, a number of challenges remain.
As well as increasing the overall number of available charging stations, planners will need to ensure that they are adequately distributed within a city so that there’s always one within reasonable driving range. Specifying EV charging points on new developments runs the risk of a ‘scattergun’ approach, particularly where developments are concentrated in specific areas. Local authorities would do well to adopt a strategic and planned approach to EV provision to ensure adequate coverage. This will be particularly important in rural areas, as electric cars typically have a maximum range of around 150 miles. ’Range anxiety’ is an affliction suffered by many electric car drivers!
While various grants are available for electric car owners to install charging infrastructure at their homes, it is also not yet clear how home EV charging will work in densely populated areas without private parking, such as large blocks of flats. One potential solution may be the use of massive batteries kept in shipping container-style boxes, with up to 50 charging points attached.
The provision of on street EV charging facilities may present a design challenge in historic and/or conservation areas. In London, this has been dealt with by retrofitting existing street lamps with EV infrastructure, even including heritage lamps in Kensington and Chelsea.
There have also been concerns about the ability of the national grid to cope with millions of cars being plugged in to charge every evening. Encouraging drivers to charge ‘smart’ at off-peak times may be the way forward.
Despite these challenges, there are promising signs of progress. Some noteworthy examples include Elgin-based housebuilder Springfield Properties committing to installing cabling for electric car charging points in all new-build homes as standard, including its new 3,000-home development in Perth. There are also plans to turn the A9 into an ‘electric highway’ and for a new ‘charging hub’ in the centre of Dundee – which will also be part-powered by the use of solar canopies.
EV technology is an area of fast-paced change and addressing the many challenges that it presents will require planners to adopt similarly innovative and forward-thinking solutions. With advances being made on contactless under-road EV charging, it may not be long before electric streets charge our cars on the move. We in the Information Service are excited to see what the future holds, and will be keeping abreast of the latest developments in both policy and practice.
The Knowledge Exchange provides information services to local authorities, public agencies, research consultancies and commercial organisations across the UK. Follow us on Twitter to see what developments in policy and practice are interesting our research team.
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