At this time of year, high streets and shops across the country are bustling, decked out with lights and colourful decorations, and of course, the familiar Christmas tunes.
For many, this is part and parcel of the exciting run up to Christmas. However, for autistic people, the added crowds, lights and noise can turn an already challenging experience into a sensory nightmare.
Indeed, although more than 1 in 100 people in the UK are on the autism spectrum, many still struggle to access local shops and services. Places that many neurotypical people may take for granted – shops, theatres, cinemas, cafes and restaurants, hairdressers, libraries and museums, public toilets, and public transport – can be particularly challenging environments for autistic people.
Unpredictable and unfamiliar noises, lights, smells, crowds, queues, and other events can be overwhelming, and may cause sensory distress – ultimately leading to a meltdown. Meltdowns may present as crying, screaming, kicking, biting or lashing out. A lack of understanding and awareness of autism among the public – including unfriendly looks, judgements and comments – can further enhance the distress experienced.
In 2015, a YouGov poll found that 99.5% of people in the UK had heard of autism. However, there remains a lack of public understanding about how it may present, and the associated challenges autistic people face. This is perhaps best illustrated by the recent case of a young woman with Asperger’s being forcibly removed from a cinema for ‘laughing too loudly’. Unfortunately, this experience is not unique. Research has found that as many as 28% of people have been asked to leave a public space because of behaviour associated with autism.
Indeed, many autistic people and their families have changed their own behaviour to reduce the chance of experiencing intolerance from the public.
It’s perhaps not surprising, then, that social isolation is a common issue – 79% of autistic people and 70% of parents feel socially isolated. Almost half (44%) sometimes don’t go out because they’re worried about how people will react.
Increasing public understanding
The recent Too Much Information (TMI) campaign, delivered by the National Autistic Society (NAS), aims to increase public understanding of the five core features of autism.
Those five core features are:
- anxiety in social situations
- anxiety with unexpected changes
- sensory overload
- processing time
Creating an autism friendly city
One response has been the drive towards the creation of ‘autism-friendly’ cities.
According to Autism Together and Autism Adventures, an autism-friendly city is one in which autistic people can ‘use public transport, shop for food and clothes, take part in sports and leisure activities, visit cultural and tourist institutions and eat in restaurants.’
The NAS have established an ‘Autism Friendly Award’, which aims to help businesses make the small changes that make the most difference to autistic people. Their Autism Friendly Awards toolkit sets out a helpful five-point checklist:
- customer information: providing appropriate information to help support autistic people and their families’ visitor or customer experience
- staff understanding of autism: developing staff understanding
- physical environment: making appropriate and reasonable adjustments within the limits of the physical environment
- customer experience: a willingness to be flexible and providing a clear way for autistic people and their families to provide feedback
- promoting understanding: committing to helping increase wider public understanding of autism
Examples of good practice
In Glasgow, the council have been working to make the city centre autism-friendly. The plans have focused initially upon shopping centres, transport hubs, museums, cinemas and key operational staff across the city centre.
The Glasgow Film Theatre (GFT), Scotland’s oldest independent cinema, recently became the first cinema in the UK to achieve an Autism Friendly Award for their work with children and adults. This includes monthly screenings for autistic adults and children, with the volume slightly lowered, stair lights remaining switched on, house lights dimmed and a chill out zone provided. Trained ‘autism facilitators’ also answer questions at the end of each film.
Other organisations have followed the GFT’s lead. Glasgow Science Centre, for example, has recently introduced autism friendly hours.
In the North East, Aberdeen has also announced its intention to work towards autism-friendly status.
As well as raising awareness and making key shopping locations more accessible for autistic people, Aberdeen also plans to introduce autism-friendly libraries, including pop up sensory sessions designed for autistic children.
Research has shown as many as 40% of people with autism never visit a library – however, 90% have said they would be more likely to visit their local library if some changes were made.
Such adjustments include staff training, increased tolerance of noise and understanding from the public. Dimensions have released free online training and top tips for libraries looking to become autism-friendly. It notes that while many people with autism need a quiet environment, they may make noise themselves – for example, by talking to themselves or others, becoming excitable or moving around. They highlight the importance of making clear to the public that the library is autism-friendly, which includes a tolerance of certain levels of noise.
Other cities that have been working towards autism-friendly status include: Bristol – whose airport has won an Autism Friendly Award; Liverpool – where autism champions are being supported to recognise and respond to autism; and Newcastle in Northern Ireland – which has been named as Northern Ireland’s first autism-friendly town. It is anticipated that being autism-friendly will help boost the local economy and tourism.
Other ways to make cities autism-friendly
As well as organisations themselves making adjustments and promoting autism understanding among staff and customers, there are a few other ways in which cities can be made more autism-friendly.
Making public transport more accessible is a key challenge. More than half of autistic people avoid public transport due to fears of disruption. There are many things that can be done to help make public transport less distressing for autistic people.
From an architecture and design perspective, there are also many other things that can help to make urban buildings and spaces more accessible, in regard to ventilation, acoustics, heating, lighting, layout and outdoor spaces.
From a town planning perspective – there is currently a lack of research and guidance on the design of places for autistic people per se, however, there may be some transferability of lessons from work on the creation of dementia-friendly and child-friendly spaces.
For example, the provision of clear signage and removal of street clutter may be beneficial for autistic people. Edinburgh City Council has recently banned on-street advertising structures in order to make streets more accessible for people with disabilities.
There have also been concerns raised that shared spaces – including the removal of road signs, traffic crossings and delineation between roads/walkways – may negatively impact upon autistic people, who may struggle with the uncertainty such schemes deliberately create. This is an area where more research and guidance is needed.
The way forward
Creating a city that is autism-friendly requires a multi-faceted approach that includes both raising public awareness and understanding, and creating towns and places that allow for the specific challenges that are faced by autistic people and their families.
Many steps that can be taken are low cost and easy to implement – and support is available from a range of national and local autism organisations, such as the NAS.
Even just reacting with kindness and compassion when witnessing a possible autistic meltdown – perhaps offering some solution such as a quiet space – is significant. The sum of these small changes can make a world of difference to autistic people and their families.
“I wouldn’t change my son for the world but I will change the world for my son.” Julie Simpson, Founder of Autism Adventures
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